Though the gold the Spanish sought was never found, sugar became Jamaica’s—and Britain’s—prize commodity. In fact during the apprenticeship period (1834-1838) and in 1839, a number of persons of African descent came to Jamaica as free labourers. There are mountains and plateaus to the interior and east of the island. The rebellion was put down by the Governor, Edward John Eyre. Jamaica, W.I, Tel: Jamaica - Jamaica - The independent country: On August 6, 1962, Jamaica became independent with full dominion status within the Commonwealth, under a constitution that retained the British monarch as head of state. Accompanying Mrs. Cuthbert-Flynn is LASCO Detailing Representative, Jodi-Ann Mullings. A violent earthquake destroyed Port Royal on June 7, 1692. On May 10, 1655, an English expedition, commanded by Admiral William Penn and General Robert Venables, landed at the present-day coastal town of Passage Fort, in the southeastern parish of Saint Catherine. They formed an anti slavery committee which was joined by supporters such as Granville Sharp, James Ramsay, Thomas Clarkson and later on, William Wilberforce. In 1938 things came to a head with widespread violence and rioting. The history of Jamaica is a rich and vibrant one, which inspires us to move forward as a nation. This occurred on his second voyage to the West Indies. The slave trade became a popular and profitable venture for the colonists. They continued to ship Africans to the West Indies to be sold to planters who forced them to work on sugar plantations. The first town was called New Seville or Sevilla la Nueva. Towns were little more than settlements. Roads, bridges and railways (railways became government owned in 1845) were built and cable communication with Europe established (1859). In October 1865, an uprising in St. Thomas, called the Morant Bay Rebellion, was led by Paul Bogle. A proper island-wide savings back system was organised. As the 70th anniversary of the ship’s arrival nears, relations between the UK and its former colony are fraying, with the extent of the scandal’s human damage proving difficult to measure The first general elections under Universal Adult Suffrage was held in December 1944. In England, they used to say “as rich as a West Indian planter” to … On May 5, 1494 Christopher Columbus, the European explorer, who sailed west to get to the East Indies and came upon the region now called the West Indies, landed in Jamaica. Other factors included the work of humanitarians who were concerned about the slaves’ well-being. The importance of St. Mary in the history of Jamaica is in many ways un-rivaled. Jamaica recently celebrated its 53rd anniversary of independence from Britain on August 6. On arrival at St Ann’s Bay, Columbus found the Arawak Indians inhabiting the island. The were sent to Jamaica because the country was closer than China. Minister of State in the Ministry of Health and Wellness, Hon. He sailed down the coast and docked at Discovery Bay. This expedition, which had failed to capture Hispaniola, proceeded to claim the island of Jamaica for England. They grew cassava, sweet potatoes, maize (corn), fruits, vegetables, cotton and tobacco. Jamaica served mainly as a supply base: food, men, arms and horse were shipped here to help in conquering the American mainland. By 1700 Jamaica was awash with sugar plantations and Jamaica's population was comprised of 7,000 English to 40,000 slaves. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. The concept of Caribbean unity was soon abandoned in 1961 when Jamaicans voted against the Federation of the West Indies. When full Emancipation came in 1838 a system that had been tried and tested in the Caribbean since the sixteenth century came to an end. He kept the Spaniards busy defending their coasts that they had little time to attack Jamaica. The French far outnumbered their opponents, but were eventually turned back, after losing hundreds of … – Howard Pyle, “Jamaica New and Old” in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, January 1890. Though most of the English planters had left the islands and new owners were running the plantations, the old oligarchic system still remained. However, the slave trade with Jamaica had commenced before this date. The island remained poor under Spanish rule as few Spaniards settled here. She has suffered earthquake, famine, pestilence, fire and death: and she has been the home of cruel merciless slavery, hardly second to that practised by the Spaniards themselves. Several slave rebellions stand out in Jamaica’s history for example, the Easter Rebellion of 1760 led by Tacky; and the Christmas Rebellion of 1831 which began on the Kensington Estate in St. James, led by Sam Sharpe. Other countries have taken centuries to grow from their primitive life through the flower and fruit of prosperity into the seed time of picturesque decrepitude. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. In late 1654, English leader Oliver Cromwell launched the Western Design armada against Spain's colonies in the Caribbean. Why did they come? Read our, Get the Facts: NHT Benefits for Disabled Persons, Get the Facts – Coronavirus and the New Academic Year, Do’s and Don’ts in Communicating with the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, Back to School Health Tips: Properly Wash Your Hands. The next year 1,200 settlers from Surinam came to Jamaica … Champs School Profile – Wolmer’s Boys & Girls, Champs School Profile – Vere Technical High School. After some misfortunes, this effort succeeded, and much booty and many ships were taken by … A number of white people was killed including the custos of the parish. Their faces were broad and their noses flat. In 1673 there were 17,272 persons in Jamaica. Its close neighbours are Haiti, to the east, and Cuba, to the north. Tobacco, indigo and cocoa soon gave way to sugar which became the main crop for the island. He has since been named a National Hero. They were also joined by immigrants from the Middle East, primarily what is now Lebanon (although, in Jamaica, these residents are known as “Syrians.”) Jamaica has been an independent nation since 1962. In 1670 Spain formally ceded the island to Britain .  In 1655, Admiral William Penn and General Robert Venables were dispatched to conquer Spanish Santo Domingo (Hispaniola). What is the Global Tourism Resilience and Crisis Management Centre? Jamaica’s history has been poetically composed by Howard Pyle, who states: Jamaica, like many another of the West Indian Islands, is like a woman with a history. In 1663 an expedition sailed from Jamaica to attack the Spanish town of Campeche, in Central America. 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Port Royal’s days as a pirate’s haven, however, were numbered, and in 1697 a massive earthquake plummeted much of the city into Kingston Harbour. Buccaneering had begun on the islands of Tortuga and Hispaniola. The Jamaican Constitution 1962 is the most fundamental legal document in the country, guaranteeing the freedom, rights and privileges of every Jamaican citizen. He started out as a pirate and later became a privateer. The immediate post slavery days were very difficult for the poorer classes. European settlements in the Caribbean began with Christopher Columbus. How Do I protect Myself From Cybercrimes? The abolition of the British slave trade in 1807 did not mean that people of African origin no longer came to the island. Throughout the course of history, people from all over the globe have settled in our island. However, the Spanish repulsed this poorly-executed attack, known as the Siege of Santo Domingo, and the English troops were soon decimated by disease. In the early days of the colony, piracy flourished. They came from South America 2,500 years ago and named the island Xaymaca, which meant ““land of wood and water”. They built their villages all over the island but most of them settled on the coasts and near rivers as they fished to get food. The English captured Jamaica in 1655 and turned the island into one vast sugar plantation, making the planters rich. The little attention the colony received from Spain soon led to a major reason for internal strife. Our history speaks to experiences of hardships and prosperity; and the growth and determination of a people. The survivors of the earthquake who re-settled in Kingston abandoned the Port. Columbus was soon to find out that there was no gold in Jamaica. The Indigenous People of Jamaica It is believed that the Tainos were the first group of people to make the island of Jamaica their home. Fifteen years later in 1509, after their first visit to the island, the first Spanish colonists came here under the Spanish governor Juan de Esquivel. Norman Manley was the founder of the National Workers’ union and the political party the People’s National Party (PNP).   On the backs of a large population of African slaves, the colony became one of the most important sugar producers in the world. In 1958, Jamaica and ten (10) other Caribbean countries formed the Federation of the West Indies. Pirates. On August 6, 1962, Jamaica was granted its independence from England. The early period of English settlement in Jamaica, drew much attention to the buccaneers based at Port Royal. Trading in African slaves was declared to be “utterly abolished, prohibited and declared to be unlawful”. Jamaican English tends to follow British English spelling conventions. The cruelty of the enslavement and the comparatively small number of the slave masters, however, resulted in a history of rebellion and unrest as African Jamaicans fought the freedom to better their lot. The colonists were impressed with the performance and endurance of the Africans, as well as the fact that African labour was cheaper and more promising. In return they were to stop fighting and help to recapture run-away slaves. In the wake of the English Civil War, the new Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell sought to expand his domain in the New World. Many Tainos were also brutally murdered as sport which shows the extreme cruelty of the Spanish. She has enjoyed a fever of prosperity founded upon those incalculable treasures poured into her lap by the old time buccaneer pirates. Jamaica served mainly as a supply base: food, men, arms and horse were shipped here to help in conquering the American mainland. Caribbean Islands Table of Contents. Eyre was subsequently recalled to England but not before exchanging the ancient Constitution for the Crown Colony system. Morgan mercilessly raided Spanish fleet and colonies. After the English finally captured Jamaica from the Spanish in 1660, the area around the north coast town of Puerta Santa Maria became known as St. Mary and the chief town as Port Maria. Morgan died in 1688. Harvesting sugar cane requires a lot of manpower, more than the British could supply themselves. The story of how English came to Jamaica is closely connected to one of the most shameful chapters in the history of the British Empire – the slave trade. From 1509 to 1655, what we know as Jamaica was called Santiago, a colony of Spain. Both Sir Alexander Bustamante and Norman Manley were instrumental in Jamaica’s move towards self-government. After the Spanish repelled this poorly executed attack, the English force then sailed for Jamaica, the only Spanish West Indies island that did not have new defensive works. The following year Jamaica joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The voyage was so named because the journey of a British slaver was 3-sided, starting from England with trade goods, to Africa where these were exchanged for slaves. Later, when yellow fever broke out in Panama, Chinese workers demanded to leave the country, and Panamanian authorities sent them to Jamaica – because of the close geographical proximity. They first settled in the St. Ann’s Bay area. A distinction exists between Jamaican English and Jamaican Patois, though not entirely a sharp distinction so much as a gradual continuum between two extremes. In April 1655, General Robert Venables led the armada in an attack on Spain's fort at Santo Domingo, Hispaniola. The Constitution reflects the country’s independence as a nation state and, to this day, remains the cornerstone of the island’s legal systems and institutions. The contributing factors were discontent at the slow pace of political advance. Ms. Jamaica now has its own constitution which sets out the laws by which the people are governed. The majority however, came to the island by force due to the slave trade. In some books you may see them being referred to as the “Arawaks”. Facebook Twitter. In 1674 Lord Vaughan arrived as Governor. Somewhere between 5,000 BC and 4,000 BC saw the arrival of the Guanahatabey or Ciboney people, who followed a now submerged chain of small islands that used to run from the eastern Yucatan through to Cuba and Jamaica. What Was Jamaica Like Under British Rule? The Arawaks were a mild and simple people by nature. The Maroons also had several wars against the English. On May 10, 1655, Admiral William Penn and General Robert Venables led a successful attack on Jamaica. For example, the distress caused by a world-wide economic depression, the ruin of the banana industry by the Panama industry Disease, falling sugar prices, growing unemployment aggravated by the curtailment of migration opportunities and a steeply rising population growth rate. The Spanish also came without women and as of such, often the Taino women were raped by the settlers. Columbus also needed wood and water and a chance to repair his vessels. The prehistory of Jamaica saw three separate waves of colonization by Amerindian peoples. For some it was for adventure, some in search of wealth and opportunity and even some as punishment. However, it is important that we highlight and give credence to the indigenous people of Jamaica, known as the Tainos. They were so overworked and ill-treated that within a short time they had all died. The British military governor, concerned about the possibility of Spanish assaults, urged buccaneers to move to Jamaica, and the island’s ports soon became their safe havens; Port Royal, in particular, gained notoriety for its great wealth and lawlessness. Bent was presented with a gift basket containing personal care items, courtesy of LASCO Limited. © Copyright 2018 Gleaner Company Ltd. All Rights Reserved. In 1655, the British ended a failed attempt to steal Santo Domingo from Spain by stealing the one island they didn’t care about enough to protect.I’m sure even fellow Jamaicans are wondering where I’m going with this, but after hanging around way too many Spaniards – and dating two – I’ve noticed a few things.Ricardo, Daniel, Emilio, Leo, Adrian, and Ian are all common Jamaican names. With the English came a period of sprawling and prosperous sugarcane plantations and piracy. Enslaved Africans filled the large labour force required for the industry. 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